THE NAKED HAMLET (Hamlet # 1)
Joe Papp was a New York City icon. In many ways, he still
is because his legacy thrives. It was Joe, the son of Jewish
immigrants from Russia, who convinced NYC to approve
the creation of the New York Shakespeare Festival. In the
early 60s, Joe introduced free Shakespeare-in-the-Park, with
two or three plays a year presented at the Delacorte Castle
in Central Park. Many of the world's greatest actors, from
George C. Scott and James Earl Jones to Meryl Streep and
Amy Adams have thrilled audiences with free Shakespeare
and other dramas and musicals.
Below: Joe Papp and the stage of the Delacorte.
It was Joe who galvanized forces to save New York
City's classic theatres from destruction when the city was
undergoing architectural transition in the 70s and realtors
were razing 19th Century theatres that were an integral part
of the city's cultural history to erect shiny, new box
In 1967, Joe managed to wangle a deal with NYC to take over
the old Astor Building/Library on the corner of Lafayette and
Astor Place in Greenwich Village. He intended to convert it
into theatre space for his non-profit company. In that building
he transformed the American theatre. Shows like Hair, A Chorus
Line, For Colored Girls, The Normal Heart, and No Place to be
Somebody all got their start at the Public Theatre. After Papp's
death, the Public still turned out ground-breaking shows like
Hamilton. Below: The former Astor Library, now The Public.
For his first show at the newly-created Anspacher Theater
within the Astor, Joe decided to mount a production of
Hamlet, one of his favorite plays. But he didn't want a
conventional staging of the play. It was 1967 and the whole
world was changing. Joe wanted a reinterpretation of
Shakespeare's tragedy that would speak in a new way to
ordinary people. Thus, The Naked Hamlet was born! Papp
and a student, Ted Cornell, said they wanted to slash the play
by half, pull out many of the famous lines, put those lines in
different places in the play, give them different speakers
sometimes, and see what happened. Characters were cut
and the scenes were all reconfigured. I know all this because
my high school sent a bunch of us into the city to see it. It was
my second show. As I recall, the soldiers at the play's beginning
all looked like they worked for Fidel Castro, and a cigar-smoking,
bearded Claudius, dressed in a khaki uniform, barked commands.
Gertrude showed up in a cocktail dress. A very fetching Ophelia
pranced around in a micro-mini-skirt. Sometimes, Hamlet, played
by a very young Martin Sheen, wore nothing but boxer shorts. He
slept in a coffin. The ghost of King Hamlet sported long-johns. I
remember during the carnival-like atmosphere of this play (and I had
never seen or read Hamlet before) that Sheen grabbed a bunch of
bags of peanuts and balloons and came up the aisles into the audience
as if he were hawking them to customers at a ball game. There was
even a rock-music score created by Galt MacDermott, the composer
of Hair! There was a lot of schtick, a lot of slapstick. At one point
Hamlet and Claudius get into a foul-mouthed fight, and the
audience wasn't sure whether it was real or not. One striking
moment was the delivery of the "To be or not to be" soliloquy.
Sheen, of course, was born Ramon Estevez. His father was Puerto-
Rican. So Sheen spoke Hamlet's famous lines with a thick Hispanic
accent that stunned the audience. Cornell wrote "not only did it
get quiet, you started to hear sobbing in the audience...He liberated
those lines so people could listen to them freshly." It was all over
in ninety minutes. Papp then came out and talked to us all about
the show and his ambitions.
Below: Sheen's 1972 reflections of the 1967 production.
Clive Barnes and Walter Kerr were the daily and Sunday critics for the
New York Times. Both of them pretty much eviscerated the production as
jejune and sophomoric. Barnes called it "a Hamlet for philistines". Never a
good thing to read. Most of the other reviews were kinder and more
appreciative of what Papp had aspired to if not fully achieved. Richard
Watts in the New York Post said it was "at times satirically amusing, at others
seemingly pointless, but always irreverently inventive." But Papp
won in the end. Everyone in New York was talking about this production,
good or bad, fascinating or moronic, artistic or juvenile. It created a buzz.
I'm not going to lie. I didn't know what to make of it. I probably would
disapprove today but the production's anarchic spirit entertained me back then.
(It probably helped that I didn't know the play!) I have seen many Hamlets since,
but nothing like this one! And ultimately it was an honor to see Joe Papp's first
Shakespeare production at the Public. I have taken students to see many since.